1. (a) What does CBC stands for?

Competency based Curriculum Background

Introduced in primary and secondary schools in Rwanda

Learning because CBC emphasizes no longer on passive acquisition of Knowledge, but on the development of skills and attitudes required to Ensure the learner is competent in the application of knowledge Activity (SIIQS Project) launched in Jan 2017 to strengthen support Implementation of CBC curriculum in classrooms

(b) State and give examples to each of the competencies in CBC

  • In lesson observation guide what are the teachers learning documents that have to be available and regularly prepared?

These are the documents which are used by the teacher in the preparation, implementation and evaluation of teaching/learning process. They include schemes of work, lesson plans, records of work and progress records. They are meant to make teaching and learning more effective

  • State and explain main importance of ICT in teaching and learning process

ICT helps facilitate the transaction between producers and users by keeping the students updated and enhancing teachers capacity and ability fostering a live contact between the teacher and the student through e-mail, chalk session, e-learning, web-based learning including internet, intranet, extranet, CD-ROM, TV audio …

ICT enhancing teaching and learning process .ICTs have the potential to accelerate, enrich, and deepen skills, to motivate and engage students, to help relate school experience to work practices, create economic viability for tomorrow’s workers, as well as strengthening teaching and helping schools change. In a rapidly changing world, basic education is essential for an

individual be able to access and apply information. Such ability must find include ICTs in the global village.

The use of ICT will not only enhance learning environments but also prepare next generation for future lives and careers. Changed pool of teachers will come changed responsibilities and skill sets for future teaching involving high levels of ICT and the need for more facilitative than didactic teaching roles.

The flexibilization time-space accounted for by the integration of ICT into teaching and learning processes contributes to increase the interaction and reception of information. Such possibilities suggest changes in the communication models and the teaching and learning methods used by teachers, giving way to new scenarios which favour both individual and collaborative learning.

ICT enhancing the quality and accessibility of education. ICT increases the flexibility of delivery of education so that learners can access knowledge anytime and from anywhere. It can influence the way students are taught and how they learn as now the processes are learner driven and not by teachers. One of the most vital contributions of ICT in the field of education is- Easy Access to Learning. With the help of ICT, students can now browse through e-books, sample examination papers, previous year papers etc. and can also have an easy access to resource persons, mentors, experts, researchers, professionals, and peers-all over the world.

This flexibility has heightened the availability of just-in-time learning and provided learning opportunities for many more learners who previously were constrained by other commitments. ICT also allows the academic institutions to reach disadvantaged groups and new international educational markets. As well as learning at anytime, teachers are also finding the capabilities of teaching at any time to be opportunistic and able to be used to advantage

ICT enhancing learning Environment. ICT presents an entirely new learning environment for students, thus requiring a different skill set to be successful. Critical thinking, research, and evaluation skills are growing in importance as students have increasing volumes of information from a variety of sources to sort through . ICT is changing processes of teaching and learning by adding elements of vitality to learning environments including virtual environments for the 6 purpose. ICT is a potentially powerful tool for offering educational opportunities. It is difficult and maybe even impossible to imagine future learning environments that are not supported, in

one way or another, by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT).

ICT enhancing learning motivation. ICTs can enhance the quality of education in several ways,  by increasing learner motivation and engagement, by facilitating the acquisition of basic skills, and by enhancing teacher training. ICTs are also transformational tools which, when used appropriately, can promote the shift to a learner centered environment. ICTs, especially computers and Internet technologies, enable new ways of teaching and learning rather than simply allow teachers and students to do what they have done before in a better way. ICT has an impact not only on what students should learn, but it also plays a major role on how the students should learn. Along with a shift of curricula from “content-centered” to “competence- based”, the mode of curricula delivery has now shifted from “teacher centered” forms of delivery to “student-centered” forms of delivery. ICT providesMotivation to Learn. ICTs such as videos, television and multimedia computer software that 7 combine text, sound, and colourful moving images can be used to provide challenging and authentic content that will engage the student in the learning process. Interactive radio likewise makes use of sound effects, songs, dramatizations, comic skits, and other performance conventions to compel the students to listen and become more involved in the lessons being delivered. Some of the parents of the respondents opined that their children were feeling more motivated than before in such type of teaching in the classroom rather than the stereotype 45 minutes lecture. They were of the view that this type of learning process is much more effective than the monotonous monologue classroom situation where the teacher just lectures from a raised platform and the students just listen to the teacher

ICT enhances the scholastic performance. Based on the extensive usage of ICTs in education the need appeared to unravel the myth that surrounds the use of information and communication technology (ICT) as an aid to teaching and learning, and the impact it has on students’ academic performance. ICTs are said to help expand access to education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital workplace, and raise educational quality. ICT helps students to their learning by improving the communication between them and the instructors

  • What do you understand by inclusive education and suggest at least 5 strategies to make your school inclusive

Inclusive education means that all students attend and are welcomed by their neighborhood schools in age-appropriate, regular classes and are supported to learn, contribute and participate in all aspects of the life of the school.

What are the types of inclusive education?

Special education

Inclusive education

The teachers                     Specialised  

Adapt the curriculum, methods, and system to the needs of the children

Schools (no. of the definitions for Activity 1)

Specialised schools (3)

Inclusive schools (4)

What are the characteristics of inclusive education?

Characteristics of An Inclusive Classroom. It is every child’s right to be supported by their parents and by the community to develop a positive understanding of themselves and others, regardless of their differences, culture and abilities

Why inclusive education is important describe?

Inclusive education (when practiced well) is very important because: All children are able to be part of their community and develop a sense of belonging and become better prepared for life in the community as children and adults. It provides better opportunities for learning.

What are the benefit of inclusive education?

Inclusive education has a range of benefits and many recipients of those benefits. They are with peers from whom they can learn new social and real life skills that will equip them to live in their communities. They have the opportunity to develop friendships with typically developing children.

What is an example of inclusion?

inclusion …… When a book covers many different ideas and subjects, it is an example of

the inclusion of many ideas. When multiple people are all invited to be part of a group, this is an example of the inclusion of many different people.

What are the main objectives of inclusive education?

The goal of an inclusive education system is to provide all students with the most appropriate learning environments and opportunities for them to best achieve their potential. All children can learn and reach their full potential given opportunity, effective teaching and appropriate resources.

What is the aim of inclusive education?

We aim to appropriately integrate persons with disabilities, particularly children, in inclusive education programs, provide specific, affordable specialist services

facilitating inclusion and transition from home/center to school, and empower the role of communities, families, persons (and children) with disabilities …

How do you create an inclusive classroom?

There are a number of strategies instructors can implement to create a productive and inclusive climate.

  1. Examine your assumptions. …
  2. Learn and use students’ names. …
  3. Model inclusive language. …
  4. Use multiple and diverse examples. …
  5. Establish ground rules for interaction. …
  6. Examine your curriculum. …
  7. Strive to be fair.

What is special and inclusive education?

The primary objective of inclusive education is to educate disabled students in the regular classroom and still meet their individual needs. Inclusive education allows children with special needs to receive a free and appropriate education along with non- disabled students in the regular classroom

What are the benefits of inclusion?

Benefits of Inclusion for Students With Disabilities

  • Friendships.
  • Increased social initiations, relationships and networks.
  • Peer role models for academic, social and behavior skills.
  • Increased achievement of IEP goals.
  • Greater access to general curriculum.
  • Enhanced skill acquisition and generalization. How do you promote inclusive education?

Part 1 Building an Inclusive Environment

  1. Learn about your students’ needs. Get to know each student one-on-one. …
  2. Make the physical environment accessible. …
  3. View each student as an individual. …
  4. Avoid assumptions. …
  5. Watch your tongue. …
  6. Guide student behavior. …
  7. Work with everyone involved.

What are the barriers to inclusive education?

Inclusive Education,” outlined many of them, including: Attitudes: Societal norms often are the biggest barrier to inclusion. Old attitudes die hard, and many still resist the accommodation of students with disabilities and learning issues, as well as those from minority cultures

What is the philosophy of inclusive education?

Inclusive Education Philosophy. Participation of students with exceptional needs

in inclusive settings is based on the philosophy of equality, sharing, participation and the worth and dignity of individuals.

What is the role of teacher in inclusive education?

Inclusion requires teachers to accept the responsibility for creating schools in which all children can learn and feel they belong…. It also provides some suggestions about

the role of teacher education in development of teacher’s skills, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs.

What are the 7 pillars of inclusion? What are the 7 Pillars of Inclusion?

  • ACCESS. Access explores the importance of a welcoming environment and the habits that create it. …
  • ATTITUDE. Attitude looks at how willing people are to embrace inclusion and diversity

and to take meaningful action. …

  • CHOICE. …
  • POLICY. …

How is inclusion generally defined?

Full inclusion means that all students, regardless of handicapping condition or severity, will be in a regular classroom/program full time. All services must be taken to the child in that setting.

What is the vision of Special Education?

The vision of the Republic K-12 Special Education Department is to see students with educational disabilities who understand their rights and abilities, and are being challenged to meet expectations that prepare them for sustainable employment, further education, and training.

  • Discuss any 5 of crosscutting issues provided in competence based curriculum
  • (Composition) talk about the use of technology in Rwanda (not exceed 30 lines).
  • Discuss any 5 strategies for CBC implementation in school

In simple terms, the Kenyan Competency based Curriculum (CBC) is a new system of education designed by the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD) team and launched by the ministry of education in 2017. The CBC is designed to emphasize the significance of developing skills and knowledge and also applying those competencies to real life situations.

Core competencies of CBC

The creators of the competency based curriculum envision that at the end of

the learning period, every learner should have achieved the following competences

  1. Communication and collaboration
  2. Critical thinking and problem solving
  3. Imagination and creativity
  4. Citizenship
  5. Learning to learn
  6. Self-efficacy
  7. Digital literacy

What are the objectives of competency based curriculum?

A competency-based curriculum is a curriculum that emphasizes what learners are expected to do rather than mainly focusing on what they are expected to know. In principle, such a curriculum is learner-centred and adaptive to the changing needs of students, teachers, and society.

What is the importance of competence based curriculum?

One of the key benefits of CBE is that learning centers on real-world skills

and competency development. Programs are designed around competencies that are needed for a particular career ensuring that the material is relevant. The outcome is that students are workplace ready and have expertise in their chosen fields.

What are the advantages of the new curriculum?

It gives teachers tangible resources and goals, stimulates creativity, and enables self- reflection. And, most importantly, documenting curriculum improves student outcomes. All the advantages described by respondents culminated in this shared goal. Students benefit from organized curriculum held to a high expectation.

What does competency based education mean?

Competency-based learning refers to systems of instruction, assessment, grading, and academic reporting that are based on students demonstrating that they have learned the knowledge and skills they are expected to learn as they progress through

their education

What are the competencies in education?

The Education Competencies define many of the attributes, behaviors, areas of knowledge, skills, and abilities that will lead to superior job performance and professional growth in the education field.

What are the different types of competencies?

Some of the important core competencies include – decision making, teamwork, work standards, reliability, motivation, adaptability, problem-solving, integrity, communication, planning and organization, stress tolerance, and initiative.

What is CBC in Rwanda?

Rwanda Education Board: New competence based curriculum is aligned to national development goals. Rwanda Education Board (REB) is mandated to produce, elaborate and provide learning and teaching materials in line with the curriculum. It also equips teachers with skills to enable them implement the curriculum in place.

  • Mention and explain any 5leadership style.
  • What are the effects of non-inclusive education
  1. Differentiate between CBC and KBC.
  1. (a) Describe the main parts of the computer hardware.
  • Describe the main parts of the computer.
  • Differentiate between ROM and RAM
  • List any 5 devices used to store information.
  • Discuss any 5 positive impacts of ICT in education.
Text Box: The followings are the aim and objectives of ICT implementation in education:
1. To implement the principle of life-long learning / education.
Text Box: 2.	To increase a variety of educational services and medium / method.
3.	To promote equal opportunities to obtain education and information.
4.	To develop a system of collecting and disseminating educational information.
5.	To promote technology literacy of all citizens, especially for students.
6.	To develop distance education with national contents.
7.	To promote the culture of learning at school (development of learning skills, expansion of optional education, open source of education, etc.)
8.	To support schools in sharing experience and information with others.
  1. Discuss languages skills and prove how those ones can be helpful in every days life.
  2. What are the main levels of communication skills?
  1. What are at least 5 main tools of ICT?
  1. What are pedagogical documents of a teacher?
  1. Differentiate types of assessment.
  1. List all crosscutting issues used in teaching.
  1. With example, Differentiate between CBC and KBC.
  1. List 10 pedagogical documents of a professional teacher in Rwanda.
  • (a)Enumerate 5 facilities of (ICT distributed to school and give 3 advices to protect them).
    • Identify 3 strategies of using ICT to solve problems related to insufficiency of teaching materials including books.
  • Composition
  • Write notes on:

-CBC (Competence Based Curriculum)



-DDE(District Direct Education)


  • What are the competences: -generic and –basic
  • Why Rwanda education system has chosen to implement CBC instead of KBC
  • (a) Define ECD (Early Child Development)
  • What is the use of transition child from ECD to regular schools?
  • Who are stakeholders in Rwanda education?
  • (a) What are responsibilities of head teachers?
  • What are qualities of head teachers?
  • What do you understand by teaching/learning materials and how can you support teachers to use teaching/learning materials?
  • How can you (our input to fight against school dropout) in our district?
  • (a) What are the main tools of ICT at least 5
  • Give at least 5 importance of ICT in teaching and learning


  • What are the main levels of communication skills?
  • What are the benefits of new curriculum (CBC) use table to differentiate between CBC and KBC
  • (a) What is a unit planning or scheme of work?
  • State all the steps for unit planning
  • (a) Differentiate between special educational need and special need education.
    • State any 5 categories of special educational need.
  • Explain the use of main documents of teachers.
  • Choose any subject and ant topic it and make its lesson plan,
  • (a) State at least 5 qualities of a teacher.
  • What can avoid a good teacher?
  • Deeply explain the following terms:
  • Inclusive education
  • Education for all.
  • Give CBC lesson plan template.
  • List down the elements of instructional objectives and give an example.
  • Reading skills is important at all education levels, discuss (1pge).
  • Identify 5 problems that are found in education of Rwanda find out there solutions.
  • What is a computer Hardware and enumerate its elements.
  • Give the impacts of new curriculum in the development of our country.
  • Give 5 techniques used in teaching and learning process.
  • Define the following terms in relation to the quality of education (a)Equity

What do you mean by equity in education?

Equity in education means that personal or social circumstances such as gender, ethnic origin or family background, are not obstacles to achieving educational potential (definition of fairness) and that all individuals reach at least a basic minimum level of skills (definition of inclusion).

What is the difference between equity and equality in education?

Equity and equality are two strategies we can use in an effort to produce

fairness. Equity is giving everyone what they need to be successful. Equality is treating everyone the same. Equality aims to promote fairness, but it can only work if everyone starts from the same place and needs the same help

What do you understand by equity and equality in education?

In contrast to equality and equity, a just education is focused on ensuring that each student has the opportunities to find, figure out, and develop their skills and abilities based on their values and their communities’ values. A just education does not assume the same means or the same ends for every student

What is concept of equality?

Equality is about ensuring that every individual has an equal opportunity to make the most of

their lives and talents……. Equality recognises that historically certain groups of people with

protected characteristics such as race, disability, sex and sexual orientation have experienced discrimination

  • Equality
  • Access

What is meant by access education?

In education, the term access typically refers to the ways in

which educational institutions and policies ensure—or at least strive to ensure—that students have equal and equitable opportunities to take full advantage of

their education.

Why is access to education important?

Equal access to education helps you and the community. Educating and empowering young boys and girls is extremely important for the growth of a country; it brings political, economic and health advantages. It is very important that steps are taken to help all children access their right to an education

  • Give 5 advantage of lesson planning in teaching/learning process.

What are the five merits of lesson planning for teachers?

The 10 Advantages of having a Lesson Plan Before Going to Classroom

  • Inspiration. A thorough lesson plan inspired the teacher to improve the lesson plan further. …
  • Evaluation. …
  • Self-confidence. …
  • Previous Knowledge of the Students. …
  • Organized Matter. …
  • Ask Questions. …
  • Guidance. …
  • Interest.

What are the advantages of lesson planning?

Planning helps the teacher to overcome the feeling of nervousness and insecurity. It gives him confidence to face the class. Lesson planning gives opportunities to the teacher to think out new ways and means of making the lesson interesting and to introduce thought-provoking questions

Why is it important for a teacher to prepare a lesson plan?

Lesson planning is a significant element of teaching-learning system. A lesson plan is a step-by-step guide that provides a structure for an essential learning…………… It

is important because it helps the teacher in maintaining a standard teaching pattern and does not let the class deviate from the topic.

What are the steps of lesson plan?

7 Steps to Prepare an Exciting and Effective lesson plan

  1. Step 1 – Choose realistic learning goals. …
  2. Step 2 – Pick exciting topics or learning contexts. …
  3. Step 3 Know your students’ needs and talents. …
  4. Step 4 – Use a range of teaching approaches and methods. …
  5. Step 5 – Select appealing resources. …
  6. Step 6 – Fair assessment. …
  7. Step 7 – Evaluation.

What is the purpose of lesson planning?

A lesson plan is a detailed step-by-step guide that outlines the teacher’s objectives for what the students will accomplish during the course of the lesson and how they will learn it. Creating a lesson plan involves setting goals, developing activities, and determining the materials that you will use

What are the 5 parts of a lesson plan? The detailed lesson plan has five parts:

  • Objectives.
  • Subject Matter (topic, references, materials)
  • Procedure (motivation, activity, routines, lesson proper)
  • Evaluation.
  • Assignment.
  • Explain why the ministry of education has changed the curriculum.
  • Explain 5 skills that can be used to ensure good classroom management.
  • List 5 evaluation forms and briefly explain them.
  • Explain the key point to consider in advance when planning a lesson.
  • Give 3 things you can do to build positive relationship with students.
  • By using diagram, show the difference between KBC and CBC.
  • Bloom taxonomy is a classification system used to help define and differentiate between levels of learning. Taxonomy helps teachers to develop assessments, teaching and learning method.
  • Give 3 pats of taxonomy in order to cover different competences.
  • Explain the bloom’s taxonomy for KBC
  • Explain 12 strategies for creating independent learning.
  • What are the components of CBC lesson plan?
  • Explain any 5 teaching methods you can apply in teaching-learning environment.
  • (a) What is motivation in teaching-learning process?

(b) In what ways can teacher conduct demotivate learners in teaching-

learning process?

  • Apart from teaching what are other roles can teacher play at school?

What are the 7 roles of a good teacher? The seven roles are:

  • Learning mediator. …
  • Interpreter and designer of learning programmes and materials. …
  • Leader, administrator and manager. …
  • Scholar, researcher and lifelong learner. …
  • Community, citizenship and pastoral role. …
  • Assessor. …
  • Learning area/subject discipline/phase specialist.
  • What is the role of ITORERO RY’IGIHUGU in education?
  • Identify any 5 challenges faced in the teaching career and explain how you are ready to cope up with them.
  • Give learning objectives brought in new curriculum but left behind (not considered) in old curriculum.

What is different in the new curriculum?

  • Class are now called Grade.
  • ECD has two levels only (Pre-Primary 1 and 2) that is PP1 and PP2
  • Subject areas are now reoffered to as learning areas.
  • Topics/sub-topics are now known as strands/sub-strands.
  • learning outcomes is the new term that replaces lesson objectives.
  • learning resources are used instead of teaching aids.
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